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    Innovations have hitherto mostly been acknowledged in terms of new technical products in both theories and policies on innovation. The public support to the transformation of research results and new ideas into new goods and services, provided by the state as well as by several universities, has thus primarily been adapted to the conditions prevalent in technological and manufacturing industries. Since the Nordic countries have a long tradition in policy and research focusing social aspects of societal development, there ought to be a potential in supporting innovations emanating from the social sciences as well. Social science innovations could then better serve to solve the great economic and social challenges identified on the global level by OECD, on the European level by EU and on the national level by the EU member states, not least the Nordic countries. But as the public support system for innovations is adapted to technological standards and conditions, what possibilities are there to promote and enhance ideas coming out social science driven innovations? Based on an empirical example of a specific social science innovation, this article explores how existing support systems could be adapted to enhance innovation in other disciplines and spheres outside or beyond technological ones. The empirical example emanates from a university in the middle parts of Sweden, where the Grants and Innovation Office engaged themselves in a process of intense adaptation of their services to meet the need of a social science researcher who presented on the idea of an innovation based on research on the area of gender equality. The article describes this particular innovation process step by step from research result to commercialized service using a participatory research design, autobiographical method and experimental method. Based on this empirical example of realizing a specific social science innovation, this article outlines a model for analyzing and promoting and recognizing these type of innovations. The model enables an analysis of the innovation process by its power dimensions, affecting the prospects of realizing the original idea and pinpointing key aspects for promoting social science innovations.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 21-30
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.1.21
    • Authors
      • Cecilia Nahnfeldt, Centre for Gender Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
      • Malin Lindberg, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden

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    The cluster concept has had great influence on national and regional policies for growth and innovation in Sweden since it was introduced in the late 1990s. This article argues that while the cluster concept has been relatively uncontested on the national policy arena, it has been contested on the regional arena regarding its meaning and proper use. We scrutinize this contestation as a matter of power struggles between different actors concerning the preferential right of interpretation of which organizations, areas and innovations are to be considered as important in policies and practices promoting clusters. The article thus highlights the tricky balance act performed by policy makers and civil servants when deciding on prioritization versus diversification. The article contributes to the further development of both policies and theories on growth and innovation by empirically mapping and discussing the impact of power struggles on clusters as pathways to innovation. In order to exemplify these struggles, our study draws upon two separate studies: one of how the cluster concept has been used as a policy measure over time on national and regional level in Sweden (Säll, 2012) and another of the organization of alternative clusters by Women Resource Centers throughout Sweden (Lindberg et al., 2012). Comparing these two cases makes it evident that the perceptions of clusters that harmonize with prevalent hegemonic discourses of growth and innovation have to large extent enjoyed the preferential right of interpretation, however are at the same time challenged by alternative conceptions of clusters. When highlighted in relation to existing research on innovation, growth policy and power relations, the two empirical examples stand out as interesting cases of how innovation policy has been introduced as academic theory, translated to a political context and subject for contestations that has changed the initial meaning of the concept. Ultimately, it is concluded that the pathways to innovation in the Nordic countries are paradoxical, due to the paradoxical pathway of policies and practices to evoke innovation and change as the same as preserving traditional regional power structures.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 11-20
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.1.11
    • Authors
      • Malin Lindberg, Department of Business Administration, Luleå University of Technology, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå, Sweden
      • Line Säll, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden

    0 0

    Innovations have hitherto mostly been acknowledged in terms of new technical products in both theories and policies on innovation. The public support to the transformation of research results and new ideas into new goods and services, provided by the state as well as by several universities, has thus primarily been adapted to the conditions prevalent in technological and manufacturing industries. Since the Nordic countries have a long tradition in policy and research focusing social aspects of societal development, there ought to be a potential in supporting innovations emanating from the social sciences as well. Social science innovations could then better serve to solve the great economic and social challenges identified on the global level by OECD, on the European level by EU and on the national level by the EU member states, not least the Nordic countries. But as the public support system for innovations is adapted to technological standards and conditions, what possibilities are there to promote and enhance ideas coming out social science driven innovations? Based on an empirical example of a specific social science innovation, this article explores how existing support systems could be adapted to enhance innovation in other disciplines and spheres outside or beyond technological ones. The empirical example emanates from a university in the middle parts of Sweden, where the Grants and Innovation Office engaged themselves in a process of intense adaptation of their services to meet the need of a social science researcher who presented on the idea of an innovation based on research on the area of gender equality. The article describes this particular innovation process step by step from research result to commercialized service using a participatory research design, autobiographical method and experimental method. Based on this empirical example of realizing a specific social science innovation, this article outlines a model for analyzing and promoting and recognizing these type of innovations. The model enables an analysis of the innovation process by its power dimensions, affecting the prospects of realizing the original idea and pinpointing key aspects for promoting social science innovations.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 21-30
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.1.21
    • Authors
      • Cecilia Nahnfeldt, Centre for Gender Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
      • Malin Lindberg, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden

    0 0

    The cluster concept has had great influence on national and regional policies for growth and innovation in Sweden since it was introduced in the late 1990s. This article argues that while the cluster concept has been relatively uncontested on the national policy arena, it has been contested on the regional arena regarding its meaning and proper use. We scrutinize this contestation as a matter of power struggles between different actors concerning the preferential right of interpretation of which organizations, areas and innovations are to be considered as important in policies and practices promoting clusters. The article thus highlights the tricky balance act performed by policy makers and civil servants when deciding on prioritization versus diversification. The article contributes to the further development of both policies and theories on growth and innovation by empirically mapping and discussing the impact of power struggles on clusters as pathways to innovation. In order to exemplify these struggles, our study draws upon two separate studies: one of how the cluster concept has been used as a policy measure over time on national and regional level in Sweden (Säll, 2012) and another of the organization of alternative clusters by Women Resource Centers throughout Sweden (Lindberg et al., 2012). Comparing these two cases makes it evident that the perceptions of clusters that harmonize with prevalent hegemonic discourses of growth and innovation have to large extent enjoyed the preferential right of interpretation, however are at the same time challenged by alternative conceptions of clusters. When highlighted in relation to existing research on innovation, growth policy and power relations, the two empirical examples stand out as interesting cases of how innovation policy has been introduced as academic theory, translated to a political context and subject for contestations that has changed the initial meaning of the concept. Ultimately, it is concluded that the pathways to innovation in the Nordic countries are paradoxical, due to the paradoxical pathway of policies and practices to evoke innovation and change as the same as preserving traditional regional power structures.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 11-20
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.1.11
    • Authors
      • Malin Lindberg, Department of Business Administration, Luleå University of Technology, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå, Sweden
      • Line Säll, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden

    0 0

    Innovations have hitherto mostly been acknowledged in terms of new technical products in both theories and policies on innovation. The public support to the transformation of research results and new ideas into new goods and services, provided by the state as well as by several universities, has thus primarily been adapted to the conditions prevalent in technological and manufacturing industries. Since the Nordic countries have a long tradition in policy and research focusing social aspects of societal development, there ought to be a potential in supporting innovations emanating from the social sciences as well. Social science innovations could then better serve to solve the great economic and social challenges identified on the global level by OECD, on the European level by EU and on the national level by the EU member states, not least the Nordic countries. But as the public support system for innovations is adapted to technological standards and conditions, what possibilities are there to promote and enhance ideas coming out social science driven innovations? Based on an empirical example of a specific social science innovation, this article explores how existing support systems could be adapted to enhance innovation in other disciplines and spheres outside or beyond technological ones. The empirical example emanates from a university in the middle parts of Sweden, where the Grants and Innovation Office engaged themselves in a process of intense adaptation of their services to meet the need of a social science researcher who presented on the idea of an innovation based on research on the area of gender equality. The article describes this particular innovation process step by step from research result to commercialized service using a participatory research design, autobiographical method and experimental method. Based on this empirical example of realizing a specific social science innovation, this article outlines a model for analyzing and promoting and recognizing these type of innovations. The model enables an analysis of the innovation process by its power dimensions, affecting the prospects of realizing the original idea and pinpointing key aspects for promoting social science innovations.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 21-30
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.1.21
    • Authors
      • Cecilia Nahnfeldt, Centre for Gender Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
      • Malin Lindberg, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden

    0 0

    The cluster concept has had great influence on national and regional policies for growth and innovation in Sweden since it was introduced in the late 1990s. This article argues that while the cluster concept has been relatively uncontested on the national policy arena, it has been contested on the regional arena regarding its meaning and proper use. We scrutinize this contestation as a matter of power struggles between different actors concerning the preferential right of interpretation of which organizations, areas and innovations are to be considered as important in policies and practices promoting clusters. The article thus highlights the tricky balance act performed by policy makers and civil servants when deciding on prioritization versus diversification. The article contributes to the further development of both policies and theories on growth and innovation by empirically mapping and discussing the impact of power struggles on clusters as pathways to innovation. In order to exemplify these struggles, our study draws upon two separate studies: one of how the cluster concept has been used as a policy measure over time on national and regional level in Sweden (Säll, 2012) and another of the organization of alternative clusters by Women Resource Centers throughout Sweden (Lindberg et al., 2012). Comparing these two cases makes it evident that the perceptions of clusters that harmonize with prevalent hegemonic discourses of growth and innovation have to large extent enjoyed the preferential right of interpretation, however are at the same time challenged by alternative conceptions of clusters. When highlighted in relation to existing research on innovation, growth policy and power relations, the two empirical examples stand out as interesting cases of how innovation policy has been introduced as academic theory, translated to a political context and subject for contestations that has changed the initial meaning of the concept. Ultimately, it is concluded that the pathways to innovation in the Nordic countries are paradoxical, due to the paradoxical pathway of policies and practices to evoke innovation and change as the same as preserving traditional regional power structures.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 11-20
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.1.11
    • Authors
      • Malin Lindberg, Department of Business Administration, Luleå University of Technology, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå, Sweden
      • Line Säll, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden

    0 0

    Innovations have hitherto mostly been acknowledged in terms of new technical products in both theories and policies on innovation. The public support to the transformation of research results and new ideas into new goods and services, provided by the state as well as by several universities, has thus primarily been adapted to the conditions prevalent in technological and manufacturing industries. Since the Nordic countries have a long tradition in policy and research focusing social aspects of societal development, there ought to be a potential in supporting innovations emanating from the social sciences as well. Social science innovations could then better serve to solve the great economic and social challenges identified on the global level by OECD, on the European level by EU and on the national level by the EU member states, not least the Nordic countries. But as the public support system for innovations is adapted to technological standards and conditions, what possibilities are there to promote and enhance ideas coming out social science driven innovations? Based on an empirical example of a specific social science innovation, this article explores how existing support systems could be adapted to enhance innovation in other disciplines and spheres outside or beyond technological ones. The empirical example emanates from a university in the middle parts of Sweden, where the Grants and Innovation Office engaged themselves in a process of intense adaptation of their services to meet the need of a social science researcher who presented on the idea of an innovation based on research on the area of gender equality. The article describes this particular innovation process step by step from research result to commercialized service using a participatory research design, autobiographical method and experimental method. Based on this empirical example of realizing a specific social science innovation, this article outlines a model for analyzing and promoting and recognizing these type of innovations. The model enables an analysis of the innovation process by its power dimensions, affecting the prospects of realizing the original idea and pinpointing key aspects for promoting social science innovations.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 21-30
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.1.21
    • Authors
      • Cecilia Nahnfeldt, Centre for Gender Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
      • Malin Lindberg, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden

    0 0
  • 01/14/14--07:35: Letter from the Editor:
  • Letter from the Editor:

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Letter To Editor
    • Pages i-ii
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.4.i
    • Authors
      • Brett E. Trusko, International Association of Innovation Professionals, Texas A&M University CEO

    0 0

    There is an ongoing need to explore opportunities and build a healthy and prosperous future, create new revenue streams and wealth, discover new solutions, and transform our organizations, industries, and societies. This need leads us to focus on innovation management. Through innovation management, order can be found in chaos, while nations, industries and economies can be pulled out of crisis. This will lead to a new foundation for growth and prosperity, which may be realized sooner rather than later.

    Despite the growing awareness that innovation is the only sustainable source of growth, competitive advantage, and new wealth, the Council on Competitive Report (2008[1]) and a recent Arthur D. Little survey of 700 global companies and their executives, found fewer than 25 percent of the companies believe innovation performance is where it needs to be if they are to be successful in the competitive global marketplace. Having tried endless alternatives, company leaders are now ready to accept innovation management as a key operational discipline, just as in the past they adopted the disciplines of quality, strategic planning, and performance management systems.

    Innovation management is not a new concept in most organizations. However, the old tried and true ways, even those that may have worked in the past, are no longer adequate for the organizations of tomorrow. Across the board, organizations are engaged in new and exciting experiments to reinvent the way they conceptualize and create the future, because the old business-as-usual approaches have not produced the desired results.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 213-224
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.4.213
    • Authors
      • H. James Harrington
      • Frank Voehl

    0 0

    Iterative software methodologies allow development teams to be agile in their response to changing requirements. However, the software development team is usually at the mercy of requirements changes, rather than being part of the project engineering staff defining the changes to the solution architecture. Therefore, projects tend to implement inferior solutions. Integrating a project-level innovation technique called Inventive Problem Solving into agile software development methodologies such as the spiral model, the Rational Unified Process, and Scrum, allows the development team to affect the overall solution architecture utilizing their expertise in information technology to the maximum benefit. As a result, more creative, innovative, and efficient solutions to the problem are conceived and implemented.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 203-212
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.4.203
    • Authors
      • Ron Fulbright, University of South Carolina Upstate, 800 University Way, Spartanburg, SC 29303

    0 0

    As a set of tools and standards, Total Quality Management (TQM) tends to focus on individual processes to improve the productivity and efficiency of organizations. For the same objective, many organizations adapt the Lean production system in their strategies to eliminate waste and reduce the non-value-adding activities. Thus, organizations are looking for innovative ways to achieve more with fewer resources. Yet, innovations are restricted because the process of generating new ideas and making effective decisions is limited to just a few people, and no broad employee participation is achieved, resulting in the waste of intellectual talent. This paper aims to discuss the impact of both Lean production and TQM on innovation performance. In addition, it presents a conceptual model to understand this relationship, supported by literature review from recent studies. This discussion provides insights into more specific features related to Human Relations Management and Improvement Strategies that can be utilized to advance the intellectual capabilities at any organization, thereby providing chances of successful innovation performance.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 237-252
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.4.237
    • Authors
      • Malak Aoun, College of Business, School of Technology Management & Logistics, University Utara Malaysia, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia
      • Norlena Hasnan, College of Business, School of Technology Management & Logistics, University Utara Malaysia, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia

    0 0

    Research and Development (R&D) activities and Open Innovation activities (OI) have been of crucial importance in Low/Medium Technology (LMT) sectors that are based on the innovation abilities of LMT firms. This article analyzes the links between OI activities and R&D activities in Catalan (Spain) LMT firms. First, we develop a model of how innovation is developed within LMT Catalan firms. By analyzing R&D and OI activities in LMT firms, we measure both internal and external activities of these firms. Secondly, we explore the effects of R&D activities and OI activities in the industrial sector, and then the effects of both in the market of the Catalonia region. Catalan LMT firms have unique opportunities in the innovation process, yet face some obstacles. The objective of this article is to advocate for bridges to be built between university research and public centers, and LMT firms in Catalonia. To define the current issue within the field of Catalan LMT firms, we sample 2008 to 2010 data from the Spanish National Statistical Institute (INE), Statistical Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT), and the Organization for Economic, Cooperation and Development (OECD).

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 225-236
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.4.225
    • Authors
      • Abd El salam El Rayyes, Department of Economic and Business Organization, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
      • Jaume Valls-Pasola, Department of Economic and Business Organization, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

    0 0

    Henri Ellenberger argued that in many instances, illness serves as an integral stage in the creative process. This paper begins by contrasting the simplistic image of cause-and-effect with Ellenberger's three-part model, with illness in the middle. Then, it sets forth five different ways to construe the period of illness as a contribution to a creative process that will have begun before the illness. It concludes by introducing a familiar example from Western history of a leader whose contributions might have built upon years of exemplary preparation, but actually began in earnest only after a defining period of sudden illness.

    Henri Ellenberger [1] wrote an influential essay in the 1960s titled "The Concept of Creative Illness." Part of its brilliance is due to the fact that it took a relatively common model of cause-and-effect and added something to it, presenting a slightly more sophisticated model that raised interesting new questions about the relationship between illness and creativity. This paper considers the importance of studying the creative process through the lens of illness as liminality.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 55-62
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.1.55
    • Authors
      • Nathan Harter, Department of Leadership and American Studies, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, Virginia, USA

    0 0

    The authors present the elements constituting an advantageous business model, and suggest how to achieve that competitive edge. They argue that traditional innovation processes with funnelling front-end, stage-gate with go/kill decisions, and similar processes have inherent limitations in such an inclusive concept. They propose an alternative approach, driven by strategic business options. A business model, like everything else, has a limited life span. Anew model requires radical changes in thinking and logics. Still, the move is not easy, and most attempts will fail. The right timing is tricky, plans to abandon an existing model might feel dispiriting, and the necessity to change can be blinded by past successes. This article discusses these complex aspects and the steps needed to overcome them. Finally, in ever-changing business competition it is not realistic to constantly renew inside-out. Instead, for a company to survive, its business model must have a very important quality known as resilience. This article is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in a global business environment, as well as on their academic work.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 43-54
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.1.43
    • Authors
      • Tapani Talonen, KONE Corporation, Global Technology, Finland
      • Kari Hakkarainen, Virike Consulting, Finland

    0 0

    Research has indicated that small and medium sized firms (SMEs) play an important role in the growth of the economy. However, in order to be able to compete at an international level, most SMEs are bound to work in alliances in order to gather enough knowledge and resources for product and technology development or to be able to penetrate a larger market. Alliances can be formed with different types of actors (i.e., suppliers, customers, agents, universities, consultancies); in the alliance, information and knowledge are gathered and created. Information is defined as "knowledge that can be transmitted without loss of integrity," which includes facts, axiomatic propositions, and symbols. This knowledge can be categorized as domain-specific, procedural, or general. In the present study, a case approach is used to investigate how different types of information and knowledge generated through distributed product development are integrated into the firm, what methods are used, and some conclusions on what methods are more successful for each type of information or knowledge. Results indicate a very high representation of formal information sharing (document exchange) even if there is a high degree of agreement among the respondents that personal meetings and continuous information sharing would be better if they had a system for this. Therefore, the conclusions should lead to systems that address the above problems.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 19-28
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.1.19
    • Authors
      • Jonas Rundquist, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden

    0 0

    This paper argues the relationship between modularity and product innovation. The work is based on the assumption that in order to become an innovation, a novel product has to be successfully diffused into the marketplace. Modularity can give rise to a series of parameters related to commercial success; however, there is not a well-defined relationship between modularity and product innovativeness. The aim of the paper is to analyse the logic of the most acknowledged modularization methods in-order to understand how they can really influence product success, and then, part of product innovativeness.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 29-42
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.1.29
    • Authors
      • Lorenzo Fiorineschi, Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, Via Santa Marta, 3 - 50139 Firenze, Italy
      • Paolo Rissone, Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, Via Santa Marta, 3 - 50139 Firenze, Italy
      • Federico Rotini, Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, Via Santa Marta, 3 - 50139 Firenze, Italy

    0 0

    Information technology, globalization, and digital design have all contributed to the changing composition of new product development (NPD). These developments have led to a paradigm shift where continuous resources can be replaced by outsourced resources that are used intermittently throughout the entire innovation process. These resources can be plugged into the project at opportune times thereby lowering fixed costs and speeding commercialization. However, this intermittent use of resources requires appropriate management actions. This study reports on longitudinal, ethnographic case research performed over the span of the product development cycle of two projects. We look at multiple factors that can influence the effective coordination of outside, intermittent resources on the project. We explore critical characteristics of intermittent resources employed by new ventures, focusing on project management, the product development process, and the role of technology enablers such as IT collaboration. We find that technology's role in coordination of resources is less important than the robustness of interaction. Our qualitative study suggests that only when skilled project coordination is combined with precise communication can intermittent resources be effective. We conclude the article with the limitations and directions for further research.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 1-18
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.1.1
    • Authors
      • Tucker J. Marion, Northeastern University, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Boston, USA
      • Sebastian K. Fixson, Babson College, Technology, Operations and Information Management, Wellesley, USA

    0 0

    Letter from the Editors: The Crowded Hour of Innovation

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Letter To Editor
    • Pages i-ii
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.1.i
    • Authors
      • Brian Glassman, NPD Engineer Cameron Oil & Gas, NYU Polytechnic University
      • Brett E. Trusko, International Journal of Innovation Science, Texas A&M University

    0 0

    Research is more and more split up into scientific disciplines; this may lead to difficulties in associating different branches of specialized knowledge in projects of public usefulness, as innovation processes. The object of this paper is to discuss scientific evaluation of interdisciplinary projects in an innovation context. The development of creative activities is often handicapped by faulty evaluation, while interdisciplinary creativity is largely supported by decision-makers, it is less so by peers, who are often involved in a form of conservatism of paradigms, associated with mono-disciplines. The robustness of traditionally used indicators will be discussed in regard with perceived reputation of researchers involved in interdisciplinary projects. Most of the methodologies for assessing research performance today are largely based on quantitative evaluation using bibliometric indicators, which is not adequate to evaluate interdisciplinary research. In this paper, proposals are made, aiming at developing better methods to assess reputation in the science of complexity, associating integration of scientific fields and leading to innovation. This kind of proposal can lead to changes in the culture of evaluators (and of some researchers) since they will have to take into account a new notion of excellence, associated with a more applied vision, including innovation and the usefulness to Society.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 103-112
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.2.103
    • Authors
      • J. C. André, INSIS-CNRS, 3 rue Michel Ange F75016 Paris, France
      • C. Frochot, CNRS-ENSIC-Université de Lorraine - 1, LRGP UMR 7274, rue Grandville F54000 Nancy, France

    0 0

    Ecosystems supporting innovation are being created in many developing countries. Russia is no exception. An examination of the status of the emerging ecosystem in Russia is presented here with indications of its strengths and weaknesses. Six major categories are studied and rated in a relative system of comparison between Russia and various emerging markets as well as the United States. The rating for each category employs several factors which sum to provide a view of the overall standing of the country in areas of market, capital, people, culture, infrastructure and regulations.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 119-130
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.5.2.119
    • Authors
      • R. Page Heller, National University of Science & Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia

older | 1 | 2 | (Page 3) | 4 | 5 | newer