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    Letter from the Editors: The Crowded Hour of Innovation

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Letter To Editor
    • Pages i-ii
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.1.i
    • Authors
      • Brian Glassman, NPD Engineer Cameron Oil & Gas, NYU Polytechnic University
      • Brett E. Trusko, International Journal of Innovation Science, Texas A&M University

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    The traditional innovation process - consisting of a funnel coupled with project screening - suffers from several practical shortcomings and flaws. Overemphasis on the role of early stages, such as idea generation, overshadows subsequent phases of equal importance. The drive to feed as many ideas as possible into the funnel may cause congestion that slows down overall progress. Furthermore, the yield may be of low quality if ineffective gates allow too many infertile ideas to pass through the funnel. Processes may be inflexible and slow to react, especially if tied to the corporate planning calendar as often proposed. This is not to imply that these problems are inherent; they are instead the consequences of poor practices.

    The authors discuss the disadvantages and suggest an alternative to overcome them. The proposed approach is driven by strategic business options and also introduces additional benefits. It produces savings in sunk costs and prematurely tied-up capital. It contributes to effective and economical use of resources, because a company commits irrevocably to only one step at a time. Lastly, options enable, and by their very nature even demand, active and adaptive management.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 63-72
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.2.63
    • Authors
      • Kari Hakkarainen, Virike Consulting, Finland
      • Tapani Talonen, KONE Elevators, Global Technology, Finland

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    Rather than spend an inordinate amount of time and resources on planning what is inherently unknown and uncertain, socially-focused organizations like Panera Cares, Banco Davivienda, and Brigham Young University's (BYU) Design Exploration lab quickly map out their assumptions, run experiments to test those assumptions, and adjust their plans based on their learnings. In this article, we explain and expand on how organizations of all kinds (whether they be large corporations, social ventures, or government agencies) have bought into the idea of using innovation and experimentation for impact; and how despite recent advancements of design thinking on the social impact front, the actual implementation of innovative ideas remains elusive for many organizations. The article further presents a more systemic model for social impact innovation: social impact models, which provide one possible solution by enabling social ventures to achieve a more robust validation of their new- and not-so-new-to-the-world ideas by mapping and strategies by mapping out each assumption and iteratively testing them in the field. With this article, the authors seek to provide a practical process for how to apply the model, and how to avoid the most common illusory validation traps, which together would allow socially-focused organizations to more frequently succeed and deliver more impact with their endeavors.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 73-82
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.2.73
    • Authors
      • Salvael Ortega, 4iNNO LLC, San Diego, CA
      • Nathan Furr, Marriott School of Management, Brigham Young University, Provo, USA
      • Erin Liman, Innovation is Social, San Francisco, USA
      • Caleb Flint, Marriott School of Management, Brigham Young University, Provo, USA

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    This article presents an advanced method for managing knowledge using a modular design approach and applied the approach through an example with computer manufacturing. The benefits of modularity are discussed both within and between companies. We find that through modular design, knowledge management systems are simplified and communication between modules is greatly improved. In addition, modularity makes parallel innovation possible, as well as, sharing innovative resources through collaboration. Modularity leads to effective knowledge sharing and thus stimulates knowledge-based innovation. A case study of the computer industry further demonstrates the effects of modularity in an industry. Finally, we suggest that enterprises should take advantage of modularity when they carry out knowledge-based innovation and the measures are developed to implement successful modularity.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 83-96
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.2.83
    • Authors
      • Fang-wei Zhu, Faculty of Management & Economics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
      • Xiu-xia Sun, Faculty of Management & Economics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
      • Janis Miller, Department of Management, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA
      • Zhi-jun Deng, Faculty of Management & Economics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China

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    Synchronous inno-facturing is a technique that, when employed, drastically improves the productivity and profitability of any manufacturing company by reducing work-in-process (WIP) inventory and increasing throughput. This paper analyzes the impact of various key parameters that affect the successful implementation of synchronous inno-facturing, which is more sustainable than traditional manufacturing. ISM technique and MICMAC analysis are used to capture the relationship between the various factors and the level of impact each variable has during implementation of synchronous manufacturing. We concluded that the market demand which is triggered by innovation is the most important variable for implementing synchronous manufacturing. The capacity constrained resources are the second most important variable because it plays a vital role in driving throughput as continuous manufacturing takes place with enhanced communication within other departments thereby controlling the flow of inventory, reducing wastage, and preventing breakdowns.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 97-110
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.2.97
    • Authors
      • Rameshwar Dubey, Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management, Symbiosis International University, Nashik INDIA

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    The construction industry has been recognized for its conservatism and lack of innovation. In order to improve the success rate of construction innovation, the implementation of innovations within the context of construction has been discussed and developed. Literature in this area focuses extensively on construction innovation, and yet does not contain a systematic review. This paper looks to fill this gap by providing a systematic review of construction innovation. The review synthesizes the conclusions and shows the implementation of construction innovation. Collaboration, culture, innovation process, and drivers are identified as critical factors to improve the performance of construction innovation. Finally, the limitations of prior studies in construction innovation are discussed and recommendations made for areas of future study.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 111-126
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.2.111
    • Authors
      • Xiaolong Xue, Department of Construction and Real Estate, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
      • Ruixue Zhang, Department of Construction and Real Estate, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
      • Rebecca J. Yang, School of Project, Construction and Property Management, RMIT University, Australia
      • Jason Dai, Construction Technical Services, FLUOR, USA

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  • 06/25/14--09:24: Letter from the Editors
  • Letter from the Editors

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Letter To Editor
    • Pages i-ii
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.2.i
    • Authors
      • Brian Glassman, Head Marketer of IJIS, NPD Engineer Cameron Oil & Gas, NYU Polytechnic University
      • Brett E. Trusko, International Journal of Innovation Science, Texas A&M University

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    This article explores the research patterns and organizational features within R&D sector in China's biotechnology industry, delineating the innovation in knowledge production and industrial development. The more recent development of China's biotechnology industry is briefly overviewed from an interdisciplinary perspective, whilst a set of salient features embodied by social actors are envisaged as have so far strongly shaped the market-based, commercially driven mode of scientific knowledge production in the R&D activities. Furthermore, this mode serves as a premise to the innovation of the interaction-network. The implications derived from this analytical work shed a new light upon policy-making both at the level of S&T governance and in the management practice in China's biotechnology industry.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 167-176
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.3.167
    • Authors
      • Kai Wang, Department of History of Science and Scientific Archaeology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China

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    A case study of a large food and beverage corporation is presented to show why and how this company changed from very conservative to very innovative. As a result of the study a company innovation development model is suggested, based on resources and capabilities to change and innovate, market orientation, leadership, free exchange of ideas, a climate favorable to change and innovation, and research and development projects.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 177-182
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.3.177
    • Authors
      • Alberto Silva, Keiser University, Florida, United States

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  • 09/30/14--07:34: Letter from the Editor
  • Letter from the Editor

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Letter To Editor
    • Pages i-ii
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.3.i
    • Authors
      • Brett E. Trusko, International Journal of Innovation Science, Texas A&M University & New York University

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  • 09/30/14--07:34: Disciplining the Imagination
  • This essay applies one of the lessons from the lectures of James March on the necessity of imagination for understanding real-world phenomena such as the processes of innovation, despite the imagination's potential to ruin learning. A science of innovation depends on empirical studies from the past, yet it must capture those studies within stories. The essay concludes by encouraging scholars to examine the adequacy of those stories and consider enriching the storehouse of stories about processes of innovation from great works of literature.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 183-184
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.3.183
    • Authors
      • Nathan Harter, Department of Leadership and American Studies, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, USA

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    Using primary data generated from samples of research units within the Gambia public research sector, this two-phased inquiry seeks to identify and explain factors in research governance that influence scientific knowledge production. In contributing to empirical discussions on the impact levels of different governance models and structures to scientific output, which appear limited and mixed in literature, this study suggests, first, that scientific committee structures with significant research steering autonomy could not only directly contribute to scientific output, but also indirectly through moderating effects on research practices. It further argues that autonomous scientific committee structures tend to play a better steering role than a management-centric model and structure of research governance. Second, elaborating and providing a more insightful explanation and perspective on individual research behaviours and outcome of research, the study argues that communication and collaborative networks could improve research practices and behaviours, which is a most important predictor of scientific performance. Third, research related behaviours are multi-dimensional; they include publication behaviour, publication orientation, funding behaviour, decisions about research priorities and agenda, as well as the communication behaviour of the scientist — all of which are critical for scientific knowledge production. Fourth, analysis of results suggests that intrinsically motivated curiosity is crucial in driving creative and innovative research. For this reason, results of analysis showing negative contribution of non-supportive institutional conditions and positive contribution of intrinsic motivation suggest far reaching implications for the competiveness of a country like Gambia, which is still working to build and improve its science and technology base.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 145-166
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.3.145
    • Authors
      • Frederick Ugwu Ozor, Department of Public Administration, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

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    Due to the growing demand for civil infrastructure, financial innovations are required to close the financing gap. However, a lack of theories has inhibited a complete understanding and, thus, creation and diffusion of financial innovation. A lack of theory about financial innovations in infrastructure is mainly due to the absence of a framework to conceptualize these innovations. A typology that enables comparison of financial systems and, hence, provide a framework to conceptualize financial innovations is missing in the existing literature. This paper defines innovation in the context of financing, funding and delivery of infrastructure projects and proposes a new typology for conceptualization of the loci and types of financial innovations in infrastructure. The loci of innovations are in risk mitigation, regulation, cash flow, contract, organizational, and capital sub-systems. Types of innovations are classified as either integrated or modular and either sustaining or disruptive. The typology was tested by mapping seven innovations created by the U. S. Federal Highway Administration and diffused into 232 transportation projects between 1994 and 2002. Qualitative comparative analysis was then used to evaluate the diffusion trends of financial innovations in the case studies and to demonstrate the capability of the proposed typology for facilitating theory building in the area of infrastructure financial innovations.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 127-144
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.3.127
    • Authors
      • Ali Mostafavi, OHL School of Construction, College of Engineering and Computing, Florida International University, 105555 W Flagler St., Miami, FL, 33174, USA
      • Dulcy M. Abraham, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051, USA
      • Joseph V. Sinfield, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051, USA

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    Innovations can bring desired benefits to organizations if implemented successfully. Managers are a critical factor for influencing employee attitudes and behavior for adoption of innovations. We study employee (n=237) attitudes and behaviors for 13 different manager influence tactics in the innovation implementation phase of an e-learning system, which is regarded as the knowledge management system, in a manufacturing company in Taiwan. With regard to attitudes toward using the e-learning system, the influence tactics of apprising and collaboration were significantly associated with increased attitudes, while exchange and pressure were significantly associated with decreased attitudes. With regard to two separate behavior outcomes of the number of e-learning courses taken and the number of times online, the influence tactics of coalition, collaboration, and pressure all had significant increased associations; while ingratiation, inspirational appeals, legitimating, and rational persuasion all had significant decreased associations. Also, the influence tactics of apprising and persistence had significant increased associations only for the number of e-learning courses taken. Managers attempting to adopt innovative practices should consider the importance of influence tactics when adopting innovative practices in the corporate workplace.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 185-204
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.4.185
    • Authors
      • Holly H. Chiu, Department of Finance and Business Management Brooklyn College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA
      • Joshua Fogel, Department of Finance and Business Management Brooklyn College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA

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    A significant potential of information, knowledge, and experience is present at universities and research institutes. In view of growing competitive and innovation pressures, companies aim to increasingly use these resources. However, the transfer of knowledge between business and science is problematic. A multitude of research strands has recognized the tacit knowledge of research institutes as a decisive element that is crucial for the successful commercialization of research findings. In light of this context, various transfer strategies practiced by industry are systematized and evaluated based on the theory of knowledge. The rigorous reflection based on the theory of knowledge also opens the perspective on a new transfer strategy: the use of university spin-offs as knowledge transformers to exploit the tacit knowledge of parent institutes. Summaries for various transfer strategies are provided, and these strategies' effect on costs, flexibility, and access to the tacit realm of knowledge is shown.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 205-212
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.4.205
    • Authors
      • Fritjof Karnani, Institute of Corporate Development, Leuphana Universität, Lüneburg, Germany

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    The theoretical framework of innovation systems has been intensively studied over the last decades. The analysis of the network of interactions between institutions, actors, and processes appeared promising to derive valid hypotheses about the necessary preconditions and accelerating factors for and throughout the emergence of innovation. Few studies, however, succeeded to transform the theoretical framework into a model and even fewer took into account the evolutionary (time-related) character of such a complex system. This article follows two main questions: The first question is of a theoretical or methodological nature and is focused on how innovation systems can be designed in a way that makes them a workable model for future research. The main challenge lies in the generation of precise hypotheses that enable the researcher to trace technological evolution and the surrounding environment over time. This implies that the underlying theoretical assumptions of innovation systems have to be operationalized. This paper follows on the existing approaches and compares their merit to extract a promising concept. This concept is being coupled with existing theoretical assumptions on innovation policy to tackle the second question in this article about how to measure the political actors' influence on the innovation process. In essence, it becomes evident that innovation systems demand different political support in different development phases. These differences mainly refer to the level of intervention (from local to international) and types of interventions (e.g., direct investment, regulatory or systemic interventions). The article shows where in the system's development process certain types of political interventions are likely to be necessary and when private entrepreneurs and market mechanisms do not need this (or any) type of support. Finally, it sheds light on the influence of system-external events on the innovation system's development. It is shown that a consequential impact on the development can be spotted mainly under the influence of external macro events. Interestingly, these influences are on the one hand translated into the system via political action and on the other hand impact quite differently on the respective innovation systems, based on the system's state of evolution.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 213-234
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.4.213
    • Authors
      • Benjamin Miethling, Ackerstr, 157, 10115 Berlin

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    The article recalls the history of the development of Fluor FDG in Brazil. Important facts that impacted this development and how this technology evolved considering a time span of more than ten years, starting from 1996, are presented in this paper. Five decisions made between 2004 and 2005 were selected and analyzed from the perspective of knowledge that a key decision maker has developed around the main elements of a decision - problem, objectives, alternatives, consequences, risks approach, and linked decisions. In conclusion, this case shows that experienced decision makers can make quality decisions when they are equipped with the appropriate information, align the relevant decisions taken over time, know how to use the right tactics at the right time and with all participants in decision making. Experienced decision makers identify opportunities where there seem to be problems, review the current strategies and visualize new strategies, and prepare themselves adequately to deal with the uncertainties.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 235-248
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.4.235
    • Authors
      • Willy Hoppe de Sousa, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN - CNEN/SP, São Paulo, S.P., Brazil

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    This essay summarizes the Harry Camp Lectures of Herbert Simon as they pertain to organizational decision-making. Organizations struggle to survive in ways not unlike organisms in the natural world, whether by means of domination or adaptation — though with the profound advantage of making conscious decisions how to adapt, rather than trusting to trial-and-error. Unfortunately, many experts in decision-making advise organizations to adopt methods for optimization that are unrealistic, if not impossible, such that the objective of survival is actually threatened by such advice.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 249-256
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.4.249
    • Authors
      • Nathan Harter, Department of Leadership and American Studies, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, USA

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  • 12/22/14--09:36: Advert
  • Advert

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Research Article
    • Pages 255-256
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.4.255

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  • 12/22/14--09:36: Letter from the Editor
  • Letter from the Editor

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Category Letter To Editor
    • Pages i-ii
    • DOI 10.1260/1757-2223.6.4.i
    • Authors
      • Brett E. Trusko, International Journal of Innovation Science, Texas A&M University & New York University